By K. Angar. Thiel College. 2018.
Contraindications: Growth promotion in children with closed epiphyses (if used for growth stimulation [girls 14–15 10mg nolvadex free shipping, boys 15–16]) buy generic nolvadex 10mg on-line, intracranial lesion with ongoing neoplastic activity purchase nolvadex 20mg with amex, hypersensitivity to m-cresol or glycerin (present in somatropin), critically ill patients. If hypothyroidism develops, it may be nec- essary to use thyroid replacement therapy. Editorial comments • Administration of growth hormone should be undertaken only by a physician who is experienced in diagnosis and treatment of pituitary disorders. Mechanism of action: Competitive blocker of β-adrenergic recep- tors in heart and blood vessels. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance >60 mL/min: dosing inter- val 12 hours; creatinine clearance 30–59 mL/min: dosing interval 24 hours; creatinine clearance 10–29 mL/min: dosing interval 36– 48 hours; creatinine clearance <10 mL/min: individualize dose. Editorial comments • Note that this drug is pregnancy category B (most β blockers are category C). Susceptible organisms in vivo: Staphylococcus aureus, Strepto- coccus pneumoniae (penicillin sensitive), Enterobacter cloacae, Hemophilus influenzae, Hemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance >50 mL/min: loading dose 400 mg on day 1; then 200 mg q48h for ≥8 days. Editorial comments • Sparfloxacin has advantage over levofloxacin of improved Bacteroides fragilis activity. Mechanism of action: Competitively inhibits aldesterone action on distal renal tubules, resulting in excretion of sodium and water and retention of potassium. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance 10–50 mL/min: dose q12–24h; creatinine clearance <10 mL/min: do not use. Contraindications: Anuria, hyperkalemia, severe renal insuffi- ciency, serum potassium level >5 mEq/L, patients receiving other potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium supplements, hypersensitivity to spironolactone. Each drug should be titrated sep- arately and the combination used if appropriate. Advice to patient • Change position slowly, in particular from recumbent to upright, to minimize orthostatic hypotension. Sit at the edge of the bed for several minutes before standing, and lie down if feeling faint or dizzy. In particular, avoid those containing significant amounts of sodium or potassium (eg, Alka-Seltzer). If significant changes develop, drug should be stopped regardless of serum potassium. This should be done on the same scale at the same time each day and with the same clothing. Editorial comments • For the treatment of essential hypertension, potassium-sparing diuretics are usually combined with other diuretics or antihy- pertensive drugs. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance >50 mL/min: usual dose; creatinine clearance 26–50 mL/min: reduce dose by 50% and administer q12h; creatinine clearance 10–25 mL/min: reduce dose by 50% and administer q24h. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, preexisting bone marrow suppression, folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency. Adverse reactions • Common: headache, insomnia, depression, nervousness, abdo- minal pain, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, rash, myalgia, chills, fever, dyspnea. Clinically important drug interactions: Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of stavudine: chloramphenicol, cisplatin, ethamb- utol, hydra- lazine, lithium, metronidazole, phenytoin, vincristine. Drug may be cautiously reintroduced at 50% of prior maintenance dose if symptoms resolve. Editorial comments • Stavudine is used in combination therapy with zidovudine or other nucleoside antiviral drugs. This stimulates the formation of anticoagulant proteins, resulting in dissolution of clot. Adverse reactions • Common: superficial bleeding • Serious: angioneuritic edema, bronchospasm, severe internal hemorrhage, Guillain–Barré syndrome, hypersensitivity reaction. Editorial comments • Streptokinase is probably the most widely used fibrinolytic therapy in the world. The addition of better antiplatelet therapy is a bur- geoning area of research in acute coronary syndromes. Mechanism of action: Binds to ribosomal units in bacteria, inhi- bits protein synthesis. Susceptible organisms in vivo: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella; synergism against enterococci and streptococcoi. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with renal disease, neuromuscular disorders (eg, myasthenia gravis, parkinsonism), hearing dis- orders. Parameters to monitor • Peak and trough serum levels 48 hours after beginning therapy and every 3–4 days thereafter as well as after changing doses.
The in this paragraph purchase nolvadex 20 mg on line, showing the optional volatile flavoring materials or essence ingredients used buy 20mg nolvadex, shall immediately from such mixture may be captured and conspicuously precede or follow during concentration nolvadex 10 mg visa, separately con- such name, without intervening writ- centrated, and added back to any such ten, printed, or graphic matter. I (4–1–10 Edition) (c) The following safe and suitable malades, and Preserves—Official Final optional ingredients may be used: Action," which is incorporated by ref- (1) Nutritive carbohydrate sweet- erence, except that no correction is eners. The availability of this in- soluble solids in the optional fruit in- gredient by the method for soluble sol- corporation by reference is given in ids referred to in paragraph (d)(3) of paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Each of the so found by the weight of such fruit in- ingredients used in the food shall be de- gredient; (iii) divide the result by 100; clared on the label as required by the (iv) subtract from the quotient the applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 weight of any nutritive sweetener sol- of this chapter, except that: ids or other added solids; and (v) mul- (i) In case the fruit butter is made tiply the remainder by the factor for from a single fruit ingredient, the such ingredient prescribed in para- name is "Butter", preceded by the graph (b)(1) of this section. The result name where by such fruit is designated is the weight of the optional fruit in- in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Each such fruit tion of the fruit juice ingredients speci- juice ingredient in any such combina- fied in paragraph (b) of this section and tion is an optional ingredient. The volatile flavoring mate- sonably compensates for deficiency, if rials or essence from such mixture may any, of the natural pectin content of be captured during concentration, sep- the fruit juice ingredient. I (4–1–10 Edition) (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than (4) The weight of any optional sac- artificial flavoring, and artificial red charine ingredient means the weight of coloring in case the fruit juice ingre- the solids of such ingredient. Each of the in- multiply the percent so found by the gredients used in the food shall be de- weight of such fruit juice ingredient; clared on the label as required by the (iii) divide the result by 100; (iv) sub- applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 tract from the quotient the weight of of this chapter, except that: any added saccharine ingredient solids (i) The name(s) of the fruit or fruits or other added solids; and (v) multiply used may be declared without speci- the remainder by the factor for such fying the particular form of the fruit or fruit juice ingredient prescribed in fruits used. The re- (ii) When the optional ingredients sult is the weight of the fruit juice in- listed in paragraphs (c) (3), (4), and (5) gredient. The quantity of the fruit carrageenan standardized with nutri- juice ingredient, calculated as set out tive sweetener, no nutritive sweetening in §150. The article is sealed in containers used to make artificially sweetened and so processed by heat, either before fruit jelly. Pectin may be standard- (4) Sodium hexametaphosphate in an ized with a nutritive sweetening ingre- amount not exceeding 8 ounces avoir- dient, but such sweetening ingredient dupois per 100 pounds of the finished shall not amount to more than 44 per- food. The words "artificially sweet- gredients complying with the require- ened" shall be prominently and con- ments of §150. I (4–1–10 Edition) smaller than the largest letter used in viscous or semi-solid foods, each of any other word in the name of the food. Such mix- this section is used, the label shall bear ture, with or without added water, is the statement "lll added" or "with concentrated with or without heat. The added lll", the blank being filled in volatile flavoring material from such with the words "spice", "spice oil", or mixture may be captured during con- "spice extract" as appropriate, but in centration, separately concentrated, lieu of the word "spice" in such state- and added back to any such mixture, ment the common name of the spice together with any concentrated es- may be used. Each of the in- weight of each is not less than one-fifth gredients used in the food shall be de- of the weight of the combination; ex- clared on the label as required by the cept that the weight of pineapple may applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 be not less than one-tenth of the of this chapter. In any combination of two, three, four, (iv) In the case of concentrated fruit, or five fruits, each such fruit is an op- the weight of the properly prepared tional ingredient. For the purposes of fresh fruit used to produce such con- this section the word "fruit" includes centrated fruit. I fruit or a permitted combination ex- (4) The weight of any optional sac- clusively of Group I fruits, 47 parts by charine ingredient means the weight of weight of the fruit ingredient to each the solids of such ingredient. The weight of the method prescribed in "Official Methods fruit ingredient shall be determined in of Analysis of the Association of Offi- accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of cial Analytical Chemists," 13th Ed. I (4–1–10 Edition) (i) If the fruit ingredient is a single Such food may also contain one or fruit, the name is "Preserve" or more of the following optional ingredi- "Jam", preceded or followed by the ents: name or synonym whereby such fruit is (1) Spice, spice oil, spice extract. Each of the in- trate, or any combination thereof, in gredients used in the food shall be de- an amount not exceeding 2 ounces av- clared on the label as required by the oirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 food. Except as para- graph (c) of this section, and with or graph (d) of this section permits the without water and a jelling ingredient use of pectin, carrageenan, or salts of as specified in paragraph (d) of this sec- carrageenan standardized with nutri- tion. The quantity of the fruit ingre- tive sweetener, no nutritive sweetening dient amounts to not less than 55 per- ingredient is added, either directly or cent by weight of the finished food. The indirectly, to the fruit ingredient used article is sealed in containers and so to make artificially sweetened fruit processed by heat, either before or preserves or artificially sweetened after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. Pectin may be standard- ized with a nutritive sweetening ingre- used, the label shall bear the statement dient, but such sweetening ingredient "lll added as a preservative", the shall not amount to more than 44 per- blank being filled in with the common cent by weight of the standardized pec- name by which the preservative ingre- tin and the quantity of such standard- dient used is designated in paragraph ized pectin used shall not exceed 3 per- (a)(6) of this section. Each of the in- scribed by this section consists of the gredients used in the food shall be de- words "artificially sweetened" imme- clared on the label as required by the diately followed by the name pre- applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 scribed by §150. I (4–1–10 Edition) Subpart B—Requirements for (i) The fruit content of the pie is such Specific Standardized Fruit Pies that the weight of the washed and drained cherry content is not less than §152. The top of coloration, scar tissue, or other abnor- the pie may be open or it may be whol- mality. A cherry showing skin discol- ly or partly covered with pastry or oration (other than scald) having an other suitable topping. Filling, pastry, aggregate area exceeding that of a cir- and topping components of the food cle nine thirty-seconds of an inch in di- consist of optional ingredients as pre- ameter is considered to be blemished. The at 70°–75 °F to free the cherries and word "frozen" may be omitted from cherry fragments from the adhering the name on the label if such omission material. Such alternative statement shall deemed in compliance for the following immediately and conspicuously pre- factors, to be determined by the sam- cede or follow, without intervening pling and acceptance procedure as pro- written, printed, or graphic matter, the vided in paragraph (c) of this section, name of the food as prescribed by para- namely: graph (a) of this section. A lot shall be deemed to be in compliance for fill of Subpart A—General Provisions container (packing medium and vege- Sec.
Drug regulation buy discount nolvadex 20mg on line, surveillance purchase nolvadex 10mg on line, and law enforcement are the necessary components of any national response to the problem discount nolvadex 10 mg overnight delivery. A voluntary soft law such as an international code of practice could encourage international action against falsifed and substandard drugs. The code of practice would contain guidelines on surveillance and international reporting of drug quality problems. The code would facilitate passage of national laws on how to punish and, when necessary, extradite those re- sponsible for falsifed drugs and criminally negligent manufacture. It would also promote harmonized regulatory standards for drug manufacture and licensing. Recommendation 7-1: The World Health Assembly, in partnership with the United Nations Offce on Drugs and Crime and the World Customs Organization, and in consultation with major stakeholders, should institute an inclusive, transparent process for developing a code of practice on the global problem of falsifed and substandard medicines. It is diffcult to estimate the amount of falsifed and substandard drugs in the market or to know the toll these products take on society, the number of deaths or excess illness they cause, or the amount of time and money wasted using them in treatment. There is evidence from some conve- nience surveys that antimicrobial drugs are often compromised in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This includes medicines sold in unregulated markets and most drugs sold on the internet. This report suggests a combination of actions that could reduce the global trade in falsifed and substandard medicines. Some recommendations aim to improve medicine quality in the low- and middle-income countries that unquestionably bear a disproportionate burden of the problem. Eliminating falsifed and substandard drugs from the market requires inter- national cooperation. A voluntary soft law could help advance harmonized systems for surveillance, regulation, and law enforcement. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs 1 Introduction In the 1949 flm The Third Man and the novel of the same name, Holly Martin learns that his childhood friend Harry Lime has made a fortune diluting stolen penicillin and selling it on the black market. In a dramatic confrontation on the Vienna Ferris wheel, Martin refers to Lime’s earlier racketeering, asking, “Couldn’t you have stuck to tires? The theft, adulteration, careless manufacture, and fraudulent label- ing of medicines1 continue to attract villains who, like Harry Lime, grow wealthy off their business. Although the problem is most widespread in poor countries with weak regulatory oversight, it is no longer confned to underground economies as in postwar Vienna. Less than a year earlier, 76 doctors in the United States unknowingly treated cancer patients with a fake version of the drug Avastin (Weaver and Whalen, 2012). International trade and manufacturing systems obscure connections between the crime and the criminal; in modern supply chains, medicines may change hands many times in many countries before reaching a patient. The ef- fects of inactive, even toxic, drugs can go unnoticed or be mistaken for the 1 The terms medicine, drug, and pharmaceutical are used interchangeably in this report in accordance with the defnitions listed in the American Heritage Stedman’s Medical Dictionary (2012a,b,c). This is most true in parts of the world with weak pharmacovigilance systems, poor clinical record keeping, and high all-cause mortality, where “friends or relatives of those who die are obviously saddened, but not necessarily shocked” (Bate, 2010). Deaths from fake drugs go largely uncounted, to say nothing of the excess morbidity and the time and money wasted by using them. The manu- facture and trade in fake pharmaceuticals is illegal and hence almost impos- sible to measure precisely. The camoufage succeeds because drug quality is not something consumers can accurately judge. This imbalance, also called information asymmetry, makes the medicines trade vulnerable to market failure (Mackintosh et al. In short, “At every step of the supply chain there is this unequal knowledge, and people are exploited because of [it]” (Mackintosh et al. Market controls and oversight aim to correct the information imbal- ance in the medicines market, but supervising sprawling multinational dis- tribution chains is a “regulatory nightmare” (Economist, 2012). To start, different countries and international stakeholders cannot agree on how to defne the problem. When it is framed as one of counterfeit and legitimate drugs, many civil society groups and emerging manufactur- ing nations see a thinly veiled excuse to persecute generic drug industries (Clift, 2010; Economist, 2012). Large innovator pharmaceutical companies have the most experience in fnding and prosecuting pharmaceutical crime. The Economist recently described the 21st century as “a golden age for bad drugs” (Economist, 2012). Small travel delegations of committee members and staff also visited experts in Brasília, Delhi, Geneva, Hyderabad, London, and São Paulo in the summer of 2012. In total, the committee heard input from 106 experts in its information gathering meetings. They re- viewed the competing and often overlapping defnitions of the terms coun- terfeit, falsifed, and substandard, as well as similarly important concepts such as unregistered. As Tables 1-1 through 1-6 make clear, some of these defnitions have evolved over time, with the trade and intellectual property debates of the last 20 years coloring how people use words like counterfeit. The following brief background on intellectual property, public health, and patent and trademark infringement gives some context to this discussion.
If the units of pine- than 15 percent of the units thereof in apple are in the form of sectors discount 10 mg nolvadex with amex, not a container containing more than six more than 20 percent of such sectors in units and of not more than one unit in the container fail to conform to the a container containing six units or following dimensions: The length of the less cheap 10 mg nolvadex with visa, is other than evenly distributed in outside arc is not more than 3⁄4 inch but the unit or other than uniform with is more than 3⁄8 inch; the thickness is the color of the other units of the cher- not more than 1⁄2 inch but is more than ry ingredient buy 10 mg nolvadex overnight delivery. Such drained weights shall be de- woven-wire cloth that complies with termined by the method prescribed in the specifications for such cloth set paragraph (c) of this section. Canned seedless poration by reference is given in para- grapes is the food prepared from one of graph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Without the fresh or previously canned optional shifting the material on the sieve so in- grape ingredients specified in para- cline the sieve as to facilitate drain- graph (b) of this section which may be age. Two minutes from the time drain- packed in one of the optional packing age begins, weigh the sieve and drained media specified in paragraph (c) of this fruit. Such food may also contain weight of the sieve, shall be considered one, or any combination of two or to be the total weight of drained fruit. For fruit cocktail is the food which con- the purposes of paragraph (d) of this forms to the definition and standard of section, the names of such optional identity prescribed for canned fruit grape ingredients are "light seedless cocktail by §145. Such packing medium packing media referred to in paragraph may be thickened with pectin and may (a) of this section, as defined in §145. Such packing media may be used as (b)(1) The specified name of the food such or any one or any combination of is "artificially sweetened fruit cock- two or more safe and suitable nutritive tail". If the packing medium is established in part 168 of this chapter thickened with pectin, the label shall shall comply with such standard in lieu bear the statement "thickened with of any definition that may appear in pectin". When the liquid portion of the percent, the medium shall be des- packing media provided for in para- ignated as "light sirup"; "lightly graphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section sweetened fruit juice(s) and water"; or consists of fruit juice(s), such juice(s) "lightly sweetened fruit juice(s)", as shall be designated in the packing me- the case may be. Each of the in- (2) The color type and style of the gredients used in the food shall be de- grape ingredient as provided in para- clared on the label as required by the graph (b) of this section and the name applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 of the packing medium specified in of this chapter. Such food may (a)(1) of this section are: also contain one or more of the fol- (a) Water. The optional grapefruit ingredients referred As used in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section section, the optional packing medium are prepared from sound, mature grape- "water" means, in addition to water, fruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) of the any mixture of water and grapefruit color types white—produced from juice in which there is less than 50 per- white-fleshed grapefruit, and pink— cent grapefruit juice; the optional produced from pink or red-fleshed packing medium "grapefruit juice and grapefruit and are in the following water" means the liquid packing me- forms of units: Whole sections or bro- dium in which juice of mature grape- ken sections. Each such form of units fruit and water are combined as a liq- or a mixture of such forms of units pre- uid packing medium with not less than pared from a single varietal group 50 percent grapefruit juice and the (color type) is an optional grapefruit term "grapefruit juice" means single ingredient. The core, seeds, and major strength expressed juice of sound, ma- portions of membrane of such ingre- ture fruit. However, if it this section, a grapefruit section is is made from concentrate, the juice considered whole when the unit is in- shall be reconstituted with water to tact or an intact portion of such unit is not less than the soluble solids the not less than 75 percent of its apparent grapefruit juice had before concentra- original size and is not excessively tion. Grapefruit juice and water are the drained weight of the food consists the liquid ingredients from which the of whole sections. I (4–1–10 Edition) paragraph (a)(3)(i) (j) to (l) of this sec- lower category or 2 percent by weight tion are prepared. If one or more liquid sucrose (degrees Brix) lower if no lower nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners and category exists. Whenever the word after the grapefruit are canned or the "sirup" is used, it may be alternatively blended homogenized slurry of the spelled "syrup". A seed is (a)(3)(i) (f), (i), and (l) of this section: considered a developed seed when it Eighteen percent or more. The total number 1n=number of primary containers in sample of sample units drawn for examination 2c=acceptance number from a lot. A container, the en- falls below the standard prescribed in tire contents of a container, a portion paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the of the contents of a container, or a label shall bear the general statement composite mixture of product from of substandard quality specified in small containers that is sufficient for §130. Any sample unit shall be fruit falls below standard with respect regarded as defective when any of the to only one of the factors of quality defects or conditions specified in the specified by paragraph (b)(1) (i), (ii), or quality standard (paragraph (b)(1) of (iii) of this section, there may be sub- this section) and paragraph (c)(3)(i) of stituted for the second line of such gen- this section for minimum fill of con- eral statement of substandard quality, tainer are present in excess of the stat- "Good Food—Not High Grade", a new ed tolerances. The maximum responding designation of paragraph number of defective sample units per- mitted in the sample in order to con- (b)(1) of this section which the canned sider the lot as meeting the specified grapefruit fail to meet: requirements. Canned tents evenly over the meshes of a cir- peaches is the food prepared from one cular sieve which has previously been of the fresh, frozen, or previously weighed. Two minutes more than 1 peach pit to each 227 after the drainage begins, weigh the grams (8 ounces) of finished canned sieve and drained grapefruit. Such food is sealed in a con- section shall be considered a "defec- tainer and before or after sealing is so tive". The food will be deemed to fall processed by heat as to prevent spoil- below the standard of fill when the age. The op- ceptance number (c) in the sampling tional peach ingredients referred to in plans prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of paragraph (a)(1) of this section are pre- this section. Brix) as determined by the procedure (c) Red—the varietal types in which prescribed in §145. I (4–1–10 Edition) section and the name of the packing (iii) Whenever the names of the fruit medium specified in paragraphs (a)(3) juices used do not appear in the name (i) and (ii) of this section, preceded by of the packing medium as provided in "In" or "Packed in" or the words paragraph (a)(4)(ii)(b) of this section, "Solid pack", where applicable, shall such names and the words "from con- be included as part of the name or in centrate", as specified in paragraph close proximity to the name of the (a)(4)(ii)(c) of this section, shall appear food, except that "Halves" may be al- in an ingredient statement pursuant to ternately designated as "Halved", the requirements of §101. Each of the in- "Slices" as "Sliced", and "Dice" as gredients used in the food shall be de- "Diced".